This paper presents a cross-sectional prevalence study covering the years 2004 to 2006, which was conducted to determine the prevalence of sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia among newborns in Brazil’s Federal District. Test results reported from the Neonatal Screening Program in the Federal District Health Department from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed, and prevalence rates were calculated. Neonatal blood samples were tested by isoelectric focalization. From January 2004 to December 2006, 116,271 newborns were tested for hemoglobinopathies, corresponding to 85% of all live births from mothers residing in the Federal District. The study identified 3,760 newborns with sickle cell trait (Hb AS) and 109 with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS). The prevalence rates were 323 (Hb AS) and 9 (Hb SS) per 10,000 live births. The high prevalence of sickle cell trait highlights the importance of neonatal screening in the Federal District to support the work of health managers and professionals for plans of educational measures and the reduction of the morbidity associated with sickle cell disease.