Brazil is rich in cultural expressions and religious traditions. The school is a space where we can present this diverse range of beliefs, values, and social practices. An important human rights challenge is how to represent Brazilian diversity in educational actions and policies. This book deals with one of the most controversial aspects of the encounter between religions and secularism in religious education in Brazilian public schools. In a clear and systematic way, the authors go through laws and textbooks in order to answer the necessary questions about the meaning of religious education in Brazilian schools. The studies are divided into four main parts: “Education and secularism”, “Religious teaching in public schools”, “Cultural diversity in religious teaching books”, and “Religious justice: the main challenge of religious teaching”.