This article examines the concept of disability adopted by the most important cash transfer program targeting the disabled population in Brazil, the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC, Benefício de Prestação Continuada). The study compares the eligibility criteria established by law and the criteria used by medical examiners in the program’s selection process. The data were collected from a sample survey of 16% of the medical examiners working in the program. The questionnaire aimed to assess the instructions, forms, and procedures for selecting disabled beneficiaries. The results show a discrepancy between the formal program criteria and actual practice by the examiners, suggesting an expanded concept of disability aimed at including beneficiaries with genetic, chronic, and severe infectious diseases.