This article presents the first results of Brazil’s National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey carried out in 2010, covering women aged between 18 to 39 years old throughout urban areas in the country. The PNA combined two techniques: interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results show that, at the end of their reproductive life cycle, one in five women has performed an abortion. They also show that abortions are more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to the conclusion that abortion should be a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.