Custody and psychiatric treatment in Brazil paints a picture of the population in these institutions in 2011. This survey, which was the first of its kind in the country, presents information on one of the most vulnerable groups of people who live in psychiatric institutions in Brazil. On the other hand, the originality of the study does not allow longitudinal comparisons of the population’s particularities, but only characterizes the group studied in that year. Data to present the national and local realities and even comparisons between the national and the local profiles in the institutions is to be presented. Hopefully, the dissemination of this census will make society, academia, and the public administration interested in knowing more about the reality presented by the study.